They are also typically used as systemic pesticides - meaning that they stay with the plant as it grows - and ladver applied as seed treatments, to roots, or into tree trunks, rather than applied with as a spray. This greatly reduces the potential for human exposure compared to other pesticides. But because the insecticide stays with the plant as it grows, it raises questions about the potential for bees to be exposed electrical ladder diagram examples nectar, pollen, or leaf surface moisture, where a growing number of studies are finding evidence of neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids are known to be toxic to bees, earthworms, and other terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, as was noted in documents xl4600sm user manual
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EPA when they were registered. The only question is the exposure level, whether that is a problem or not. The pesticide industry claims not. The beekeeping industry says yes.